Youth Education  Volcanoes






A Volcano is a gap in the earth where molten rock and other materials come to the earth's surface. Some volcanoes are just cracks in the earth's crusts. Others are weak places in the earth's crust, which occur on places where magma bubbles up through the crust and comes to the earth's surface. Magma is molten rock that occurs by partial melting of the crust and the mantle by high temperatures deep down in the ground. Once magma comes to the earth's surface it is called lava.


Active and non-active volcanoes


There are volcanoes in different phases of activity:
Active volcanoes, which are likely to erupt at any moment, dormant volcanoes, which lie dormant for centuries, but then erupt suddenly and violently, and extinct volcanoes - ones no longer likely to erupt.


Types of volcanoes


In the surroundings of boundaries of tectonic plates the following types of volcanoes occur:


The fissure volcano


Is a long crack in the earth's surface through which magma erupts. These cracks may form as two tectonic plates pull apart.
You'll find them mainly near mid-ocean ridges


The shield volcano


This is a broad, shallow volcanic cone, which  arises because the running lava, which is fluid and hot, cools slowly.


The dome volcano


This one has a steep, convex slope from thick, fast-cooling lava.


The ash-cinder volcano


Throws out - besides lava - much ash into the air. Through this the volcanic cone is built up from alternate layers of ash and cinder.


The composite volcano


These are also built up from alternate layers of lava and ash but, besides its main crater, it has many little craters on its slope.


The caldera volcano


An older volcano with a large crater which can be 62 miles(100km) wide. In this crater many little new craters are formed.











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