The study includes the impacts of global warming on hydrological process, vulnerability assessment using the results of climate models for water resources and adaptation measures. The study infers that 1.7 billion people presently live in countries that are water- stressed. Projected climate change would further decrease available water in many of these water-stressed countries, most of these being developing. Global warming generates high intensity rainfall with short duration, which affects runoff process. It also influences the groundwater resources. Due to sea level rise by global warming, the freshwater- seawater interface is shifted further inland and this shifting leads to a reduction in the volume of fresh groundwater resources. Most of fresh water is used to grow food; however, 60% of water used for irrigation is wasted.
The study also includes some adaptation measures (responsive / anticipatory) and viable suggestions to save the water resources especially below the surface. Emphasis is given on the anticipatory adaptation; to minimize the accumulation of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the Earth’s atmosphere.